Over the vast years of collecting bricks of various sizes and sets, I find that during my free builds I run low on a specific type. How can I go about identifying what the brick is named and what resources are available for this identification process>
The problem here is that fans started to name parts way before LEGO started to make its internal part names a bit more public. As such, there are various naming conventions around, including:
If you know which set your part comes from, the easiest way is to look at the inventory of that set on Peeron or BrickLink (depending on which name you're after — for building or illustrating, use peeron; for buying or selling, use BrickLink).
If you don't know... just take a pic of it and ask here, we'll find it :-)
Almost all parts have their part number embossed on them which can be used on these services to search for part, however it's often quite small and hard to read ;)