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Where can I find basic Lego terminology illustrated with Lego parts, e.g. what's a stud? what's a plate? I also need to know the names of the most common scales of basic Lego kits, and measurement of a most fundamental part(s) at each scale.

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    Does the answer below satisfy you, or do you need more information? – zovits Dec 27 '19 at 11:04
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Terminology

This is the most basic terminology in a single image: enter image description here

A bit more verbose version is found in this slideshow, but there are a few factual errors, highlighted in the comments below.

The various parts are named based on their main characteristics, then their sizes in studs, as seen here: enter image description here

After getting the hang of it, it's time to advance to the more complex terminology, with the help of the indispensable blog New Elementary.

Measurements

The fundamental sizes for the basic bricks are seen in this answer, or a bit more simply: enter image description here

The height of the plates is 1/3 of the bricks, or 3.2 mm.

Scale

As for scales, this question is a bit complicated, as the basic reference unit is the LEGO Minifigure, which has weird proportions, resulting in inconsistent scales:enter image description here

However, there are a few official ones, including:

  • minifigure scale (about 1:40)
  • microscale: anything way smaller than that, see these examples or these official ones.
  • midi-scale was only ever used officially for two sets, which are sized very differently, as both models are around 30 studs long, so it's 1:100 - 1:6000 which would definitely fall into microscale category.
  • towards the other end of the scale, there is life-sized, which of course does not get used much for official sets for sale, but rather for one-off projects: enter image description here
  • and it is definitely possible to create larger than life LEGO builds: enter image description here Or models of microscopical structures, like cells: enter image description here or even of subatomic scale: enter image description here
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    I believe "technic linkers" are more commonly called "pins". – user253751 Dec 23 '19 at 10:30
  • Also worth mentioning is the term “antistud”, which is the opening at the bottom of a brick/plate/tile that fits a stud snugly and is the reason the LEGO brick system works so well. – Phil B. Dec 23 '19 at 18:28
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    @PhilB. I have updated the images with your suggestions. – zovits Dec 23 '19 at 19:39
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From the book Crazy Action Contraptions page 47 has a nice graphic showing the relation between the sizes of different pieces.

page 47 of Crazy Action Contraptions

I'd add that it is more common to call a "sideways brick" a stud. All lego elements are measured in studs. Using the same example as on the far right of the image, this Technic Axle is four studs long.

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