I am trying to find out if you can upload LEGO NXT byte-code to any other hardware, so I am just checking to see if anyone has ever written the LEGO firmware for any other hardware. Maybe hardware like an Arduino, Raspberry Pi, etc.
LEGO itself does not make specific firmware/software to support other devices other than the official NXT brick but...
...you can still use Arduino and Raspberry Pi (and more) with the NXT components including the NXT brick. Personally, I mix LEGO and electronics all the time.
Arduino & Raspberry Pi are flexible development platforms and they can easily be interfaced with other devices. Also, the NXT devices (i.e. The Brick or peripherals) can be interfaced by something else than the official LEGO hardware & software. On the other hand, the effort needed to run the LEGO firmware (probably through an emulator...) on a new device is way harder than to interface the systems. Remember that this is a firmware and it expect to run on the exact device it was built for.
RaspberryPi & NXT: Pi is still relatively new but, since it's a full computer, it is very easy to use. To interface with NXT you can use the GPIO pins but thanks to the USB port, somebody already made the NXT-python to control the NXT brick.