(spoilers) I saw The LEGO Movie and when Lucy looked at a Legeo piece she automatically knew it's part number, name, and other information about it. I thought this was really cool, and knew I could do this with a computer program, but how on Earth am I going to find every single LEGO's part number, and name? I have tried websites such as http://brickset.com, and http://bricklink.com, but they organize by category. What I need is a table of all of the LEGO pieces with their part number, and, name. Can anyone help?
There are several places you can go to to download a catalog of LEGO parts. All these catalogs use a different part number scheme than LEGO officially uses (due to the fact that until a few years ago, LEGO part information was a company secret). In no particular order:
Bricklink. This is the most expansive catalog, and has a dedicated page for creating a customized download of its catalog (the link I just pasted).
LDraw.org. This focuses more on 3D descriptions of the bricks (which might be useful for your program too) but does contain a basic parts list (part number and name). Again, the link I provided takes you straight to a download page.
Also note that a similar question has been asked before, and you might get some more info from looking at that question.