I found some books I like, but the book only give pictures of the parts. For example, this one
How can I know the part number (for example in bricklink) from the picture?
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You'll need to start learning the nomenclature for those pieces.
For example the long straight pieces you have there with holes on top are "Technic, Brick 1 x 12 with Holes"
The pieces with rounded ends are lift arms. You can browse through the list of them here or take a stab at their descriptions using the width and number of pin holes. For example the purple on you have there is
1 hole wide
9 holes long
as think as a normal LEGO brick (some are half that thickness)
Bent with 6 on one line and 4 on the other
It's good application for android - parts are sorted and easy to fine necessary part.