That's 98613c01 - Hero Factory Arm / Leg Extender with Ball Joint and Ball Socket on BrickLink.
LEGO call this item Ball Cup High Friction W. Rubber and use 74261 (design ID) and 6106472 (Element number) for latest sets.
LEGO doesn't always have full list of parts within a set as this depends on parts availability (maybe some other reasons too). You would ...
Part # 16691pb01
Minifigure, Hair Long with Nougat Headband Pattern
Part # 3626cpb0931
Minifigure, Head Dual Sided Black Eyebrows, Cheek Lines, Chin Dimple, Determined / Bared Teeth with Red Eyes Pattern (Superman) - Hollow Stud
Part # 30153
Rock 1 x 1 Jewel 24 Facet
These parts were used in large figures as a part of LEGO Knights Kingdom II sets.
"Strange cars" are actually torso/body piece used for these figures.
As an example Large Figure Torso KK with Santis Pattern - Series 1
First two digits represent week of production followed by a year.
20X8 - 20th week of 2018.
These codes used for quality control. LEGO Customer Service may ask you to provide this number if there were an issue with a set or particular part.
Similar code exist on box seals too.
This assembly consist of two parts. Well, technically, four parts, as there are two Technic 2L pins in Black, but these come in multiple sets so out of interest.
Top one in Orange is Flywheel Fairing Lion Shape with Gold and Blue Feathers Pattern (70102)
And the bottom one is Flywheel Plate 2 x 8 with Metal Flywheel and Dark Azure Tire (Chima Rip Cord Base)...
That looks like Container, X-Pod Barrel Section 10 x 10 x 3 1/3, which were used to store bricks for X-Pod sets.
Such container was available in Trans-Red in single set 4415, Auto Pod
And 4417, Aero Pod was the only set to use it Trans-Yellow
These belong to the Football subtheme, the parts are specificially Sports Field Section 8 x 16 with Horizontal Slot and Black Sliding Holder, Assembly and Sports Field Section 8 x 16.
The smaller black parts are called 4142816: Chair Ø20Mm, Spring Function and were used to have the minifigures kick the ball.
Those are Sports Field Sections 8 x 16
They appear in soccer sets
The sets are playable, you can move minifigs on springs to "shoot" the ball, or defend with the goal keeper minifig...